Processing of biomass and fermentation processes
- Biomass is biological material suitable for energy use, which is formed in the wild nature or produced by human activities. Biological material may be, for example wood, plants, agricultural residues, animal excrement and the like. Biomass - the accumulated solar energy - plants through photosynthesis (biochemical response) are converting to an organic matter. Here we can turn to various forms of energy - electricity and thermal energy or it can produce liquid fuels for vehicles.
- Biomass is used to produce heat more than the production of electricity or the production of alternative fuels for transport. The use of biomass for energy purposes is limited, other competing uses of biomass, for example. in agriculture and feed products, securing raw materials for industrial purposes, the application of the decorative features of biomass.
- The term biomass means any organic non-fossil source containing bound chemical energy. So it's all aquatic and terrestrial vegetation biomass in municipal, agricultural and industrial waste. Wood products are interesting sources of biomass straw, organic wastes, oil plants and plants containing sugar and starch.
- Biomass is considered a renewable energy source because on energy recovery of used inventory is needed only a short time. However, it is essential to ensure that there is due to the energetic use of biomass for the degradation of ecosystems, damage to national parks and protected areas, and the threat to food security.
- At present bioenergy is the dominant source of solid biomass. Processing of biomass can produce heat, electricity, combined heat and electricity as well as gas and liquid fuels for transportation. Recently, growing market with small molded wood waste, pellets and chips, which are used in the individual heating systems, also in large combined heat and power.
Ecological criteria for biomass use
- It must ensure that the raw material for biomass power in any case do not derive from national parks and natural reserves. Raw material can be obtained from already functioning woodworking industry, commercial forests and the like.
- It is unacceptable that due to the construction of a biomass power plant increased logging in Slovak forests that are already harvested over a long-term viable.
- It is unacceptable that stopped because power plants use the land for agricultural purposes and was thus compromising food security. Conversely, it is possible to plant fast-growing trees on areas that have been contaminated in the past, or used for industrial purposes, it is permissible to plant fast-growing trees on agricultural land if it is not for economic or other reasons, or used, it is also appropriate use of agricultural wastes production of energy recovery and the like.
Advantages of biomass
- One of the biggest advantages of biomass is its easy availability and local. Fall off the cost of imports from abroad, thus reducing the final price. Also, in many areas of Slovakia can eliminate the cost to imports, using locally available resources.
- Possibilities of utilization of waste materials from wood processing industry (sawdust, bark, sanding dust, scrap, scrap piece - this year is produced 1.265 million tons of waste biomasy, forestry (wood waste and extraction of forest thinning, branches, stumps, bark), agriculture (straw, crop residues, waste of vineyards, orchards, manure ...).
- Production of energy more concentrated waste materials of wood biomass: bricks (cylinders 15-25 cm), chips (2 - 4 cm pieces), pellets (granules within 1 cm), which is used "worthless" waste.
- Most types of biomass has a higher heating value than lignite. (Source: Renewable Energy, Alternative Energy Fund, Emil Bedi, r. 2001)
- Just burning in present in Slovakia little used straw we could get 1.6 billion kWh of electricity and 4.8 billion kWh of thermal energy, which is equal to consumption at about 380 000 households.
- Great perspective in terms of employment, rural development and in overcoming the crisis in agriculture.